Geology of Pakistan


In term of genesis and different geological histories, Pakistan comprises two main sedimentary basins, which evolved through different geological episodes and were finally welded together during cretaceous Palaeocene along Ornach Nal Chapman strike slip faults these are.

1-      Indus basin

2-      Baluchistan Basin

In addition to these two prodder basins are also recognized which are Peshawar basin and camp bellpur basin

Indus Basin: 


Following is the classification of Indus basin:

a-      Upper Indus basin kohat sub-basin potha sub-basin

b-      lower Indus basin: Central Indus basin southern Indus basin

In is the sargodha high which is considered to be divide between upper Indus basin and lower Indus basin.

Upper Indus basin:

This basin is located in the northern Pakistan and is separated from the lower Indus basin by Sargodha high. The northern and eastern boundaries coincide with the main boundary thrust (MBT).

The basin is further subdivided in to potohar, to the east and kohat, to the west, by river Indus. But kohat & potohar sub basin are characterized by an unconformity between Cambrian and Permian.

Lower  Indus Basin :

In book (I.B.Qadin) the scheme being used is as follows.


a)            Central Indus Basin :

1)      Punjab platform

2)      Sulainan Depression

3)      Sulainan  Fold Belt.


b)            Southern Indus Basin

1)   Thar platform

2)    Karachi Trough

3)    Kirthar  Fold Belt

4)    Kirthar Fordeep

5)    Offshore Indus.

The central and southern Indus basins are separated by Jacobabad, Mari kandhkot highs together termed as the sukkur Rift.

Baluchistan Basin:

This onshore offshore   basin, cover an area of about 300,000, is the least explored in Pakistan.



The sedimentary rock exposed in Baluchistan basin range in the age from cretaceous to recent with older rocks exposed in the North and gouger to the South. The deposition of younger iedinentary rocks is controlled by the sub diction of Arabian oceanic flake under the Makran continental plate.

The stratigraphy of this basin is complex and shows a great deal of variation from one end to other.





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